What is national security? This question has puzzled me in the past few months. Many Kenyans say that this problem or the other is a threat to national security without describing the concept. However from how threats to national security are identified, one can derive the underlying understanding of the term.
Whenever you speak to Kenyans on threats to Kenya’s national security, you will most likely hear one of two things. The first involves terrorism. It trite knowledge that Kenya has been a victim of international terrorism. From the 1998 bombings to the recent attacks this year, terrorism is a fixed theme in national security discourse.
Kenya in this respect has even gone to war. Operation Linda Nchi was initiated by the Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) to dismantle al-Shabaab operations in Somalia. These operations were crucial to the planning and execution of attacks in Kenya.
Another likely answer would be internal (in)security. The news trending is replete with news of attacks everywhere. Just a few days ago, villages in Bungoma County were attacked by unknown people and people lost their lives. Garissa is still in shock after a shooting occurred in a local hotel. The list, in my view cannot be exhausted here.
In these two cases, the underlying thread is mainly direct violence to the person. Most Kenyans view security in terms of property and personal security from banditry and terrorism. But is this all there is to national security? I think not.
I have been entertaining thoughts of a broader conceptualization of Kenya’s national security. I deem national security threats as those that threaten the proper functioning of the state or have the potential of doing that is executed unabated. Therein, I include economic and environmental security. If a countries economy and environment are gravely affected, then there will be trouble in the running of the state.
Indeed, Kenya has economic and environmental diplomacy among her foreign policy pillars. Through them, she seeks to engage the international system to derive fulfillment of her objectives. However, there must be congruent domestic policy and law that would make her case in the international arena that much stronger.
This is where the poaching menace come into play. There lacks a dearth of knowledge of poaching and poachers on the Kenyan wildlife scene. every other day stories are told of how elephants and rhinos are butchered for their precious tusks. There are also pictures that document horrific scenes resulting from the act.
Elephants and rhinos are a tourist attraction. Tourism is among the top foreign exchange earners with tourists form all over the world coming to Kenya for a variety of reasons. Among the top reasons is to see the African elephant and the rhino. These two animals may be among the biggest contributors to tourists’ traffic in Kenya, although empirical evidence to support this is lacking.
Therefore it would not be strange to conclude that poaching is a threat to economic security. If Kenya loses these wildlife specie to poaching, Kenyan tourism scene may be irreparably damaged. This translates to loss in earnings and loss of the position of top tourism attractions in the world. This in turn diminishes Kenya’s economic growth into industrialization.
In matters environment, these animals form part of a larger bio-system. As browsers and grazers, they maintain a healthy population of vegetation in the system. Through their digestive process they provide the soil in rich nutrients that sustain vegetation growth. I am not a zoologist or wildlife biologist, therefore certain technical aspects of their contribution may not come naturally to me. But i hope this puts the point across.
The system may be altered to the detriment of our environment if these animals are felled through poaching. The food chain would be the most obvious observable consequence. By eliminating a link in the chain, other elements within that chain will be affected and we may be losing much more that elephants and rhinos. We may be losing our eco-system as we know it.
I therefore feel that poaching is a threat to Kenya’s national security. Threats to national security must include those that affect the economic and environmental security of a state. If this is so, a lot must be done to stop this menace include declaring it public enemy number 1.